IEO International Legal Services

All the Help to Launch Your Next IEO – Initial Exchange Offering

They new Hype in the Market are IEOs. But what is an IEO?

In 2017 ICOs were taking the market by storm, considered to be the most popular fundraising method. The amounts of capital raised in these projects were extraordinary, it is estimated that they reached billions of dollars. Since then, the ambiguity surrounding the regulation of ICOs and the great number of projects that turned out to be scams, failures or technically ill-equipped against hacks, caused a huge decrease in their popularity, giving place for new trends in the cryptocurrency market. In the last year, there was much talk about the STOs, but now the latest blockchain-based projects running are the IEOs.

IEOs (Initial Exchange Offering) are essentially similar to ICOs, the basic difference is that the tokens are offered through an exchange partner, instead of being distributed to the contributors’ wallets directly through the project. This means that the project runners must submit their plan to the exchange and convince them about the project’s viability to gain their approval. As soon as the IEO finishes, token holders can instantly trade on the exchange platform.

IEOs are gaining the trust of the cryptocurrency crowd for the following reasons:

The listing of the tokens in the exchange market, when the IEO finishes, ensures their liquidity.

The IEO’s entry to exchange, indicates that the project has gained the exchange partner’s trust, being of substance and quality.

You become the exchange platform’s customer; therefore, they must treat you with the due diligence with which they treat the rest of their customers. Exchange platforms abide to stricter rules of transparency than ICOs which are unregulated.

The exchange platforms are more secure against hacks because the stakes are higher than traditional ICOs, therefore they have strong technological infrastructure.

Cyprus continually ranks on top of lists of the most blockchain friendly nations and our Law Firm can assist you on the banking services and banking solutions which are the area’s most companies struggle with.

IEO Options in Cyprus

The two most feasible roads to an IEO in Cyprus are to either incorporate a Cyprus limited liability company or to start a Cyprus investment fund.

Cyprus Company

Opening a company in Cyprus is easier than most other jurisdictions in the EU and in fact all over the world. The procedures are straightforward and the whole process is very time efficient. There are also provisions for payment of an express fee to accelerate an already quick process. Some of the documents required are the passport, proof of residence and offices, memorandum of association and articles of association etc. After this, the Certificate of Incorporation is granted and other formalities like the Tax-Id are sought. One needs a license from the Securities Commission in order to deal in securities.

ICO/IEO & STO Regulations in Cyprus

As IEOs are a new trend, there is no formal legislation dealing with them on paper, the crucial factor becomes the types of the token issued. Any tokens which qualify as securities would necessarily be subject to all the legislation applicable on securities and financial assets. However, only value-based tokens like cryptocurrencies would be treated differently and free from such regulations. It is wise to carefully study these regulations to avoid any penalties or liabilities in the future, even if the penalization of IEOs/ICOs is extremely rare in Cyprus.

The Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission follows the guidance of the European Securities and Markets Authority. The ESMA released a statement in late 2017 stressing the importance of ICOs/IEOs to adhere to regulations especially when their tokens or coins offered qualified under the definition of financial instruments. The specific regulations mentioned in the statement were –

The Markets in Financial Instruments Directive

MiFID is a European Union regulation dealing with financial intermediaries providing services to clients dealing in bonds, shares, derivatives etc. Any organized trade in financial instruments also comes under the ambit of MiFID which has its primary goal to regulate and bring transparency to over-the-counter transactions. It was introduced in 2008 and some of the lapses in MiFID have been addressed by introducing MiFID-II.

The Prospectus Regulation (PR3)

This replaces and updates the Prospectus Directive of 2003 dealing with the publication of a prospectus and the conditions to be satisfied through the process to maintain transparency and customer protection. This ensures a uniform level of mandatory disclosure throughout the EU so that the rights of the investors are protected equally in all economic zones. A prospectus once approved in a country thus can then be valid across all other member countries of the EU making a unified market. The regulation implemented in July 2017 aims to simplify the processes for companies by streamlining procedures and relaxing obsolete requirements.

Fourth Anti-Money Laundering Directive

As the name suggests FAMLD was launched in June 2017 with the intention of combating money laundering and terrorist financing. The main focus of the fourth directive has been on customer due diligence, background checks and risk assessments as measures to combat money laundering. It primarily regulates credit and financial institutions along with trust company services. The fourth directive increased its reliance on the risk-based approach mandating for the individual institutions to assess the risk of individual transactions. The fifth AMLD has already been proposed and adopted by the EU in April 2018.

Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive

The AIFMD regulates the activities of private equity funds, hedge funds, and real estate funds by making mandatory compliance and disclosure requirements. The AIFMD was introduced especially to be applied to these alternative investment funds and managers which were earlier exempt from disclosure and compliance norms. The main objective behind the directive is the same as other directives mentioned above, investor protection. This is done by stricter compliance regulations like ruling out the conflict of interests, independent valuation of assets etc.

Why Cyprus is the ideal IEO destination

Cyprus is one of the most Crypto friendly jurisdictions in the world.

Such is the popularity of blockchain on the island that the University of Nicosia became the first university in the world to accept the tuition fees in a Cryptocurrency.

Also, the banks in the European Union accept to open a bank account for Cyprus Companies in relation to Crypto Currency activities.

There are specialized education programs being taught on blockchain and crypto management in the country making it a global leader on the subject. It also produces skilled experts on the topic as a result.

At 12.5% Cyprus has one of the lowest corporate tax in Europe and in the world.

It provides for highly skilled human resource in all areas like legal, accountancy, marketing etc.

Cyprus, while maintaining low tax rates is also an EU member and in the EUCD white-list making it highly reputable for transparency and stability.

There is no withholding tax on dividends accrued from subsidiaries or on payment of dividends to non-resident shareholders.

Cyprus has Double Tax Treaties with more than 55 countries thus, protecting against double taxation. This includes major economies like USA, UK, India, China etc.

The government is acutely business friendly, and all procedures and formalities are time-efficient and straightforward.

Most people speak functional English.

The crime rates in Cyprus are some of the lowest in the world.

IEO/ICO Tax Liability in Cyprus

Just like regulation, the tax liability involving ICOs and IEOs is also dependent on the nature of the tokens issued and the structure of the IEO/ICO. Thus, the tax liability incurred by the different types of tokens differs significantly.

Strictly value based tokens/Cryptocurrency –Corporation tax is applicable on the profits at the rate of 12.5%. VAT exemption is probable in this case under Article 135(1)(e) of the EU VAT Directive 2006/112/EC although there is not much legal precedent in this area.

Utility tokens – These can be exempt from corporation tax as they are promises-in-future. However, the 12.5% rate of taxation will be applicable on the profits when the services promised via tokens are finally provided to the holder. We believe that there can be a case made for Utility token to be exempt from the VAT at the time of issuing of the tokens.

Asset tokens – If these qualify under the definition of share capital then a one-time Capital tax of 0.6% would apply.  There also several ways to reduce or even completely save the raised capital from corporate tax by reporting it as a liability of the company and not the revenue. There can be a case made for exemption of VAT on asset tokens under the Articles 135(1)(b) and the Articles 135(1) (f) of the EU VAT Directive.

Simon Zenios & Co specialises in IEO/ICO and STO services

The developments in the area of IEOs/ICOs & STOs have meant that firms offering IEO/ICO and STO legal services must be educated in the area in order to be in a position to protect the interest of their clients. At Simon Zenios & Co LLC our lawyers have been closely following the developments in this area and have acquired the specialized legal knowledge in order to be in a position to advise and assist our clients.

Our lawyers understand that the process of running your IEO/ICO &STO will have legal implications stemming not only from the IEO/ICO & STO documentation (White paper, T & C’s etc.) but also from marketing material. It is vital that clients running an IEO/ICO & STO are advised as to the legal implications that can arise not only from the content of the documents but oftentimes from what is not included in the documents. Above all, we understand that legal certainty and clarity should govern the relationships between the IEO/ICO & STO team and coin/token buyers, holders or users and the exchange platform.

The process of running an IEO/ICO &STO also presents legal implications in regard to token design which cannot be overlooked. Depending on its design, your IEO’s/ICO’s & STO’s token may be considered a financial instrument and could thus be subject to financial regulation. This is why it is vitally important to have legal advice and support throughout the process.

Our team of IEO/ICO & STO lawyers will be able to advise and assist you throughout the process which will begin with an introductory call with our team of experts, the point of which is for our team to understand your requirements and objectives. Following this, we can then provide you with a quote for our IEO/ICO & STO Legal services. If the quote is accepted and you decide to engage our legal services, the next step will be for us to collaborate with your team and come up with a detailed legal services plan.

We offer a range of Legal Services including:

IEO/ICO & STO Legal Services

Legal Support during the Whitelist Period, Pre-IEO/ICO/STO & IEO/ICO/STO period.

SAFT Agreement.

Token Purchase Agreement.

Preparation and drafting of the ICO Private Placement Offering Document.

Preparation and drafting of the pre-Crowd Token Offer (Pre IEO/ICO/STO) and Crowd Token Offer Agreement.

Legal Report for the Token (Security or Utility?) after the Reviewal of the Whitepaper (Opinion Letter from our Law Firm – Requirement for the Bank & the Exchanges).

Legal Disclaimer for the Whitepaper.

Privacy Policy.

Terms of Use.

Security Policy.

Legal Review of the Whitepaper.

Legal Review of the Website.

Legal Review of all Social Media Platforms.

Legal assessment for the IEO’s/ICO’s/STO’s compliance with the current regulatory framework.

Legal assessment of the application of the Token and IEO’s/ICO’s/STO’s within the current regulatory framework for investment services.

Extensive legal review of the Token and IEO’s/ICO’s/STO’s compliance with other applicable legislation (Data Protection Regulations, Consumer Protection Regulations etc.).

KYC Legal Advice and solutions for your IEO/ICO/STO.

IEO/ICO/STO Corporate & Accounting Services

Token Company Incorporation and maintenance.

Marketing Company Incorporation and maintenance.

E-money Company Formation & Licensing.

Tax and VAT Services.

Corporate Legal Services.

Administrative and Fiduciary Services.

Accounting services through our Associate Accounting Firm.

Other Non-Legal IEO/ICO & STO Services

Smart contract preparation and drafting.

Creation of multi-signature wallet.

Issuing of Tokens (ERC20 compatible).

Listing on the Exchanges. For any queries regarding any aspect of IEOs/ICOs/STOs or blockchain companies in general, or any other legal matter under the sun, we are always available.

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